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Résoudre l'énigme 15 (l'énigme du glissement des tuiles).

Après tant de luttes, nous avons trouvé la solution à cette inconnue que beaucoup de nos utilisateurs de cet espace ont. Si vous souhaitez partager des détails, n'arrêtez pas de partager vos informations.

Solution :

PyPy, 195 coups, ~12 secondes de calcul.

Calcule les solutions optimales en utilisant IDA* avec une heuristique de 'distance de marche' augmentée de conflits linéaires. Voici les solutions optimales :

 5  1  7  3
 9  2 11  4
13  6 15  8
 0 10 14 12
Down, Down, Down, Left, Up, Up, Up, Left, Down, Down, Down, Left, Up, Up, Up

 2  5 13 12
 1  0  3 15
 9  7 14  6
10 11  8  4
Left, Down, Right, Up, Up, Left, Down, Down, Right, Up, Left, Left, Down, Right, Right, Right, Up, Up, Left, Left, Down, Left, Up, Up, Right, Down, Down, Left, Up, Up, Right, Right, Right, Down, Left, Up, Right, Down, Down, Left, Left, Down, Left, Up, Up, Right, Up, Left

 5  2  4  8
10  0  3 14
13  6 11 12
 1 15  9  7
Left, Up, Up, Right, Right, Down, Left, Up, Left, Left, Down, Down, Right, Right, Up, Left, Left, Down, Down, Right, Right, Up, Right, Up, Left, Left, Up, Right, Down, Down, Right, Down, Left, Left, Up, Up, Left, Up

11  4 12  2
 5 10  3 15
14  1  6  7
 0  9  8 13
Down, Left, Down, Right, Up, Left, Left, Left, Down, Down, Right, Right, Right, Up, Left, Left, Left, Down, Right, Right, Up, Left, Up, Up, Left, Down, Down, Right, Down, Right, Up, Up, Right, Up, Left, Left, Left, Down, Right, Right, Right, Up, Left, Down, Left, Down, Left, Up, Up

 5  8  7 11
 1  6 12  2
 9  0 13 10
14  3  4 15
Up, Right, Down, Left, Left, Down, Left, Up, Right, Up, Right, Down, Down, Right, Up, Up, Left, Left, Left, Down, Down, Down, Right, Right, Up, Right, Down, Left, Up, Left, Up, Left, Down, Right, Down, Left, Up, Right, Down, Right, Up, Up, Left, Left, Up

Et le code :

import random

class IDAStar:
    def __init__(self, h, neighbours):
        """ Iterative-deepening A* search.

        h(n) is the heuristic that gives the cost between node n and the goal node. It must be admissable, meaning that h(n) MUST NEVER OVERSTIMATE the true cost. Underestimating is fine.

        neighbours(n) is an iterable giving a pair (cost, node, descr) for each node neighbouring n
        IN ASCENDING ORDER OF COST. descr is not used in the computation but can be used to
        efficiently store information about the path edges (e.g. up/left/right/down for grids).
        """

        self.h = h
        self.neighbours = neighbours
        self.FOUND = object()

    def solve(self, root, is_goal, max_cost=None):
        """ Returns the shortest path between the root and a given goal, as well as the total cost.
        If the cost exceeds a given max_cost, the function returns None. If you do not give a
        maximum cost the solver will never return for unsolvable instances."""

        self.is_goal = is_goal
        self.path = [root]
        self.is_in_path = {root}
        self.path_descrs = []
        self.nodes_evaluated = 0

        bound = self.h(root)

        while True:
            t = self._search(0, bound)
            if t is self.FOUND: return self.path, self.path_descrs, bound, self.nodes_evaluated
            if t is None: return None
            bound = t

    def _search(self, g, bound):
        self.nodes_evaluated += 1

        node = self.path[-1]
        f = g + self.h(node)
        if f > bound: return f
        if self.is_goal(node): return self.FOUND

        m = None # Lower bound on cost.
        for cost, n, descr in self.neighbours(node):
            if n in self.is_in_path: continue

            self.path.append(n)
            self.is_in_path.add(n)
            self.path_descrs.append(descr)
            t = self._search(g + cost, bound)

            if t == self.FOUND: return self.FOUND
            if m is None or (t is not None and t < m): m = t

            self.path.pop()
            self.path_descrs.pop()
            self.is_in_path.remove(n)

        return m

def slide_solved_state(n):
    return tuple(i % (n*n) for i in range(1, n*n+1))

def slide_randomize(p, neighbours):
    for _ in range(len(p) ** 2):
        _, p, _ = random.choice(list(neighbours(p)))
    return p

def slide_neighbours(n):
    movelist = []
    for gap in range(n*n):
        x, y = gap % n, gap // n
        moves = []
        if x > 0: moves.append(-1)    # Move the gap left.
        if x < n-1: moves.append(+1)  # Move the gap right.
        if y > 0: moves.append(-n)    # Move the gap up.
        if y < n-1: moves.append(+n)  # Move the gap down.
        movelist.append(moves)

    def neighbours(p):
        gap = p.index(0)
        l = list(p)

        for m in movelist[gap]:
            l[gap] = l[gap + m]
            l[gap + m] = 0
            yield (1, tuple(l), (l[gap], m))
            l[gap + m] = l[gap]
            l[gap] = 0

    return neighbours

def slide_print(p):
    n = int(round(len(p) ** 0.5))
    l = len(str(n*n))
    for i in range(0, len(p), n):
        print(" ".join("{:>{}}".format(x, l) for x in p[i:i+n]))

def encode_cfg(cfg, n):
    r = 0
    b = n.bit_length()
    for i in range(len(cfg)):
        r |= cfg[i] << (b*i)
    return r

def gen_wd_table(n):
    goal = [[0] * i + [n] + [0] * (n - 1 - i) for i in range(n)]
    goal[-1][-1] = n - 1
    goal = tuple(sum(goal, []))

    table = {}
    to_visit = [(goal, 0, n-1)]
    while to_visit:
        cfg, cost, e = to_visit.pop(0)
        enccfg = encode_cfg(cfg, n)
        if enccfg in table: continue
        table[enccfg] = cost

        for d in [-1, 1]:
            if 0 <= e + d < n:
                for c in range(n):
                    if cfg[n*(e+d) + c] > 0:
                        ncfg = list(cfg)
                        ncfg[n*(e+d) + c] -= 1
                        ncfg[n*e + c] += 1
                        to_visit.append((tuple(ncfg), cost + 1, e+d))

    return table

def slide_wd(n, goal):
    wd = gen_wd_table(n)
    goals = {i : goal.index(i) for i in goal}
    b = n.bit_length()

    def h(p):
        ht = 0 # Walking distance between rows.
        vt = 0 # Walking distance between columns.
        d = 0
        for i, c in enumerate(p):
            if c == 0: continue
            g = goals[c]
            xi, yi = i % n, i // n
            xg, yg = g % n, g // n
            ht += 1 << (b*(n*yi+yg))
            vt += 1 << (b*(n*xi+xg))

            if yg == yi:
                for k in range(i + 1, i - i%n + n): # Until end of row.
                    if p[k] and goals[p[k]] // n == yi and goals[p[k]] < g:
                        d += 2

            if xg == xi:
                for k in range(i + n, n * n, n): # Until end of column.
                    if p[k] and goals[p[k]] % n == xi and goals[p[k]] < g:
                        d += 2

        d += wd[ht] + wd[vt]

        return d
    return h

if __name__ == "__main__":
    solved_state = slide_solved_state(4)
    neighbours = slide_neighbours(4)
    is_goal = lambda p: p == solved_state

    tests = [
        (5,1,7,3,9,2,11,4,13,6,15,8,0,10,14,12),
        (2,5,13,12,1,0,3,15,9,7,14,6,10,11,8,4),
        (5,2,4,8,10,0,3,14,13,6,11,12,1,15,9,7),
        (11,4,12,2,5,10,3,15,14,1,6,7,0,9,8,13),
        (5,8,7,11,1,6,12,2,9,0,13,10,14,3,4,15),
    ]

    slide_solver = IDAStar(slide_wd(4, solved_state), neighbours)

    for p in tests:
        path, moves, cost, num_eval = slide_solver.solve(p, is_goal, 80)
        slide_print(p)
        print(", ".join({-1: "Left", 1: "Right", -4: "Up", 4: "Down"}[move[1]] for move in moves))
        print(cost, num_eval)

JavaScript (ES6) total des étapes 329 pour les 5 cas de test en ~1min.

Modifier Même stratégie, cibles différentes, meilleure solution. Plus lent...

C'est plus ou moins comme ça que je le résous à la main : en utilisant des cibles intermédiaires.
Après chaque cible, les tuiles relatives ne sont pas déplacées à nouveau.
Chaque cible intermédiaire est atteinte en utilisant une fonction BSF paramétrique. Les 2 paramètres sont la condition de boucle L (répéter tant que c'est vrai) et la condition de sélection S (sélectionner quelle tuile peut être déplacée). Les étapes :

  1. Placer 1 en haut/à gauche
  2. Place 2
  3. Place 5
  4. Place 3,4 - rangée supérieure ok
  5. Place 9,13 - colonne de gauche ok
  6. Tous les autres

Note complémentaire Je ne vérifie pas la position des tuiles 14 et 15. Des puzzles insolubles comme [11,4,12,2,,15,10,3,5,,14,1,6,7,,0,9,8,13] auront 14 et 15 permutés.

F=b=>(
  s=[],
  [[_=>b[0]!=1, (o,p)=>b[o+p]]
  ,[_=>b[1]!=2, (o,p)=>(p=b[o+p])>1&&p]
  ,[_=>b[5]!=5, (o,p)=>(p=b[o+p])>2&&p]
  ,[_=>b[2]!=3|b[3]!=4, (o,p)=>(p=b[o+p])>2&&p!=5&&p]
  ,[_=>b[10]!=9|b[15]!=13, (o,p)=>(p=b[o+p])>5&&p]
  ,[_=>b[6]!=6|b[7]!=7|b[8]!=8|b[11]!=10|b[12]!=11|b[13]!=12|b[18]!=0, (o,p)=>(p=b[o+p])>5&&p!=9&&p!=13&&p]
  ].forEach(([L,S])=>{
    for(v={},v[b]=1,t=0,m=[];L();)
    {
      b.forEach((x,p)=>
        x=='0'&&[-1,5,1,-5].forEach((o,d)=>
          (x=S(o,p))&&(c=b.slice(0),c[p]=x,c[o+p]=0,v[k=''+c]?0:v[k]=m.push([c,s.concat(d)]))
        )
      );[b,s]=m[t++]
    }
  }),
  ,s.map((d,i)=>i+': '+'RULD'[d]).join('n') // multi line output
  // ,s.map(d=>'RULD'[d]).join(' ') // single line output (easier to test)
)

Ouvrir le snippet pour tester ou jouer (Firefox uniquement).

F=b=>(
  s=[],
  [[_=>b[0]!=1, (o,p)=>b[o+p]]
  ,[_=>b[1]!=2, (o,p)=>(p=b[o+p])>1&&p]
  ,[_=>b[5]!=5, (o,p)=>(p=b[o+p])>2&&p]
  ,[_=>b[2]!=3|b[3]!=4, (o,p)=>(p=b[o+p])>2&&p!=5&&p]
  ,[_=>b[10]!=9|b[15]!=13, (o,p)=>(p=b[o+p])>5&&p]
  ,[_=>b[6]!=6|b[7]!=7|b[8]!=8|b[11]!=10|b[12]!=11|b[13]!=12|b[18]!=0, (o,p)=>(p=b[o+p])>5&&p!=9&&p!=13&&p]
  ].forEach(([L,S])=>{
    for(v={},v[b]=1,t=0,m=[];L();)
    {
      b.forEach((x,p)=>
        x=='0'&&[-1,5,1,-5].forEach((o,d)=>
          (x=S(o,p))&&(c=b.slice(0),c[p]=x,c[o+p]=0,v[k=''+c]?0:v[k]=m.push([c,s.concat(d)]))
        )
      );[b,s]=m[t++]
    }
  }),
  //,s.map((d,i)=>i+': '+'RULD'[d]).join('n') // multi line output
  //,s.map(d=>'RULD'[d]).join(' ') // single line output (easier to test)
  s
)
B.value=PZ.value,show()

function show(s='') {
  var b = eval(B.value)
  var t = b.map((c,i)=>''+c+'').join()
  .replace(/,,/g,'').replace(/,/g,'')
  G.innerHTML=''+t+''
  S.value=s
}
function solve() {
  show('... solving ...')
  var b = eval(B.value)
  setTimeout(_=>{
    var s = F(b), zp = b.indexOf(0), sp = 0
    S.value=s.map(d=>'RULD'[d]).join(' ');
    (A=_=>{
      d=[-1,5,1,-5][m=s[sp++]]
      b[zp]=b[zp+d],zp+=d,b[zp]=0
      var t = b.map((c,i)=>''+c+'').join()
      .replace(/,,/g,'').replace(/,/g,'')
      G.innerHTML=''+t+''
      if (sp
#D { position: relative }
#D input { position: absolute; width: 300px; top:2px; left:2px; border:0 none }
#D select { position: relative; width: 400px; height:1.8em; top:0; left:0; }
textarea{ width: 600px; height: 40px }
td{ width: 1.5em; text-align:right }
Puzzles (select or edit)

Suite de tests Dans la console Firefox/FireBug

T=~new Date
;[[5,1,7,3,,9,2,11,4,,13,6,15,8,,0,10,14,12]
,[2,5,13,12,,1,0,3,15,,9,7,14,6,,10,11,8,4]
,[5,2,4,8,,10,0,3,14,,13,6,11,12,,1,15,9,7]
,[11,4,12,2,,5,10,3,15,,14,1,6,7,,0,9,8,13]
,[5,8,7,11,,1,6,12,2,,9,0,13,10,,14,3,4,15]]
.forEach(t=>console.log(t+'',F(t)))
console.log('Time ms ',T-=~new Date)

Sortie

"5,1,7,3,,9,2,11,4,,13,6,15,8,,0,10,14,12" "D D D L U L D L U R R U U L D D L U U"
"2,5,13,12,,1,0,3,15,,9,7,14,6,,10,11,8,4" "D R U L U L L U R D L D R D L U R U L D R D L U R U L U R R R D L L U R D R U L L D L D R U U L D R U R D L U L D D R R U L U L D R U L"
"5,2,4,8,,10,0,3,14,,13,6,11,12,,1,15,9,7" "R U U L D D R U L D D R U U L L D D R U L D L U U R R D L U R R D L L U L D D R U U L D D R U U U R R D L L U R R D L L L U R D D L U R D R U U L L D R D L U U"
"11,4,12,2,,5,10,3,15,,14,1,6,7,,0,9,8,13" "D L D R U L D D R U L L D L U R R D L U R U R D L U R U L L D R D L L D R U U L D R D L U R U U L D R R U L D R R U L L D L D R U U L D R R D L L U U R D R U L L"
"5,8,7,11,,1,6,12,2,,9,0,13,10,,14,3,4,15" "D D R U L L L D R U R D L U U R R D L U L U R D D L U U L D D D R U U L D D R U U U R D R U L D D L U U R D R U L D L L D R U L U R D L D R R U L L U R D D L U U"
"Time ms " 62234

J'ai commencé à travailler sur ce problème et je voulais contribuer avec mon code jusqu'à présent.
Comme indiqué par Gareth, le problème est comparable au puzzle à 8 carreaux et donc le code est basé sur la magnifique solution de Keith Randall et donc en Python.
Cette solution peut résoudre les 5 cas tests avec une somme totale de moins de 400 coups, et d'autres puzzles aussi. Elle contient une solution optimisée et une solution de force brute. Le code est un peu gonflé maintenant. La sortie est abrégée comme "llururd...". J'espère que c'est utile.
http://www.penschuck.org/joomla/tmp/15Tile.txt (explication)
http://www.penschuck.org/joomla/tmp/tile15.txt (code python)

# Author: Heiko Penschuck
# www.penschuck.org
# (C) 2012

# import os;os.chdir('work')
# os.getcwd()

# def execfile(file, globals=globals(), locals=locals()):
#   with open(file, "r") as fh: exec(fh.read()+"n", globals, locals)
# 
#
# execfile("tile15.py");
#
## run these
# solve_brute();
# solve();

# some boards to play with
board2=(15,14,7,3,13,10,2,9,11,12,4,6,5,0,1,8);
# best: 76(52)  
#    72(56) 
#   68(51)      uurddlurrulldrrdllluuruldrddlururulddruurdllldrurddlurdruuldrdluurdd

board3=(13, 8, 9, 4, 15, 11, 5, 3, 14, 6, 12, 7, 1, 10, 2, 0)
# best: 106(77) 
#best: 90(64)   ullldruuldrrdrlluurulldrrdldluruulddrulurrdrddlluuurdldrrulddrulldrurullldrdluurrrddllurdr

board4=(4, 8, 12, 1, 13, 7, 3, 11, 9, 15, 6, 14, 5, 2, 10, 0) ;# best  100(74)

board5=(15,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,1,14,0); # best 44(32)
board6=( 1, 2,  3,  4, 6, 11,  0, 12, 8, 14,  9, 13, 5, 10,  7, 15);

# testcases
board7=(5,1,7,3,9,2,11,4,13,6,15,8,0,10,14,12); #   15 (7)
board8=(2,5,13,12,1,0,3,15,9,7,14,6,10,11,8,4); #  124 (94)
board9=(5,2,4,8,10,0,3,14,13,6,11,12,1,15,9,7) ; #  72 (56)
board10=(11,4,12,2,5,10,3,15,14,1,6,7,0,9,8,13) ;# 71 (57)
board11=(5,8,7,11,1,6,12,2,9,0,13,10,14,3,4,15) ;# 99 (73)

board12=(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,0,14,15); #pretty simple board
board13=(4, 10, 5, 12, 11, 7, 15, 2, 13, 1, 14, 8, 6, 3, 9, 0)

board=board3 ; # used by solve()
bboard=list(board) ;# used by solve_brute()

# init 
clean=(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,0)
i=0;
solution={};
invsolution={};
E={board:0}

# derived from Keith Randall 8-tile solution
# a: a board, d: offset to move from i: index in board
def Y(a,d,i):
 b=list(a); # b is now an indexable board
 b[i],b[i+d]=b[i+d],0; # make a move (up down left right)
 b=tuple(b); # now back to searchable
 if b not in E:E[b]=a;# store new board in E

def Calc():
 ii=0;
 # memory error when x is 21
 for x in ' '*14:
  if ii>10:
   print(ii);
  ii+=1
  for a in E.copy():
   # for all boards, make possible moves (up,left,right,down) and store the new boards
   i=list(a).index(0)
   if i>3:Y(a,-4,i)
   if i%4:Y(a,-1,i)
   if i%4 <3:Y(a,1,i)
   if i<12:Y(a,4,i)

def weigh(a,goal):
    factor=[26,8,4,6, 8,8,4,4, 4,4,1,1, 3,2,1,0]
    weight=0;
    for element in a:
        i=list(a).index(element);
        ix,iy=divmod(i,4); # ist
        if element == 0:
            # special for gap
            weight=weight+ix;
            #weight+=(ix+iy)
            continue;
        i=list(a).index(element);
        ix,iy=divmod(i,4); # ist
        j=list(goal).index(element);
        sx,sy=divmod(j,4); # soll
        #k=list(a).index(0); # gap
        #kx,ky=divmod(k,4)
        # try solving from topleft to bottom right (because clean board has gap at bottomright)
        tmp= abs(sx-ix)*abs(sx-ix)*factor[j]+ abs(sy-iy)*abs(sy-iy)*factor[j]
        #tmp += ((sx!=ix )& (sy!=iy)) *(4-sx)*(4-sy)*4
        weight+=tmp
        #(10-sx-sy-sy)
        # 8*abs(sx-ix) + (16-j)*(sx!=ix)
        #print('%2d   %2d_%2d (%2d_%2d)=> %d'%(element,i,j,(sx-ix),(sy-iy),weight))
    return weight

# read numbers seperated by a whitespace
def readboard():
    global E,D,board,clean,i
    reset()
    g=[]
    for x in' '*4:g+=map(int,input().split())
    board=tuple(g)

# read 'a' till 'o'
def readasciiboard():
    global E,D,board,clean,i
    trans={"0":0,"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4,"e":5,"f":6,"g":7,"h":8,"i":9,"j":10,"k":11,"l":12,"m":13,"n":14,"o":15}
    reset()
    g=[]
    vec=tuple(input().split());
    for x in vec: g.append(trans[x])
    board=tuple(g)

def printasciiboard(a):
    trans={"0":0,"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4,"e":5,"f":6,"g":7,"h":8,"i":9,"j":10,"k":11,"l":12,"m":13,"n":14,"o":15}
    itrans={}
    for x in trans: itrans[trans[x]]=x
    g=[]
    for x in a: g.append(itrans[x])
    for i in(0,4,8,12): print('%s %s %s %s'%tuple(g[i:i+4]))

# find the board with the smallest weight
def minimum():
    global minn,E,clean
    minn=1111111;# start with a huge number
    qq=board
    for q in E:
        if weigh(q,clean) < minn: 
            minn=weigh(q,clean)
            qq=q
    return qq

# run this and printsolution()
# (you might have to reverse the order of the printed solution)
def solve():
    global start,board,E,clean,minn,solution
    start=board;
    solution={};
    E={ board:0 }
    for x in range(0,11):
        Calc(); # walks all possible moves starting from board to a depth of 10~20 moves
        if clean in E:
            print('Solution found')
            q=clean;
            tmp=[];
            while q:
                tmp.append(q)
                q=E[q]
            for x in reversed(tmp):
                solution[len(solution)]=x;
            printsolution();
            return
        q=minimum();  # calculates the "weight" for all Calc()-ed boards and returns the minimum
        #print("Len %3d"%len(E))
        print("weight %d"%minn)
#       stitch solution
        newboard=q;
        tmp=[];
        while q:
            tmp.append(q)
            q=E[q]
        for x in reversed(tmp):
            solution[len(solution)]=x;
        board=newboard;
        E={board:0}; #reset the Calc()-ed boards
    print("No Solution")

# collects and prints the moves of the solution
# from clean board to given board
# (you have to reverse the order)
def printsolution():
    global invsolution,solution,moves,clean,start
    moves=""
    g=start; # start from board to clean
    y=g
    #invsolution[clean]=0;
    for x in solution:
        # uncomment this if you want to see each board of the solution
        #print(g);
        g=solution[x];
        #sys.stdout.write(transition(y,g))
        if (transition(g,y)=="E"): continue
        moves+=transition(g,y)
        # or as squares
        #print('%10s %d %s'%("step",len(moves),transition(g,y)));
        #print(" %s -- %s "%(y,g))
        #for i in(0,4,8,12): print('%2d %2d %2d %2d'%g[i:i+4])
        y=g         
    llen=len(moves)
    print(" moves%3d "%llen)
    print(moves)
    # processing moves. funny, but occysionally ud,du,lr or rl appears due to the stitching
    while 'lr' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('lr')
        moves=a+c
        llen-=2
    while 'rl' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('rl')
        moves=a+c
        llen-=2
    while 'ud' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('ud')
        moves=a+c
        llen-=2
    while 'du' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('du')
        moves=a+c
        llen-=2
    # processing moves. concatenating lll to 3l
    while 'lll' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('lll')
        moves=a+' 3l '+c
        llen-=2
    while 'rrr' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('rrr')
        moves=a+' 3r '+c
        llen-=2
    while 'uuu' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('uuu')
        moves=a+' 3u '+c
        llen-=2
    while 'ddd' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('ddd')
        moves=a+' 3d '+c
        llen-=2

    while 'll' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('ll')
        moves=a+' 2l '+c
        llen-=1
    while 'rr' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('rr')
        moves=a+' 2r '+c
        llen-=1
    while 'uu' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('uu')
        moves=a+' 2u '+c
        llen-=1
    while 'dd' in moves:
        a,b,c=moves.partition('dd')
        moves=a+' 2d '+c
        llen-=1
    print(" processed:%3d "%llen)
    print(moves)

    return

def transition(a,b):
    # calculate the move (ie up,down,left,right)
    # between 2 boards (distance of 1 move and a weight of 1 only)
    i=list(a).index(0);
    j=list(b).index(0);
    if (j==i+1): return "l"
    if (j==i-1): return "r"
    if (j==i-4): return "d"
    if (j==i+4): return "u"
    #print("transition not possible")
    return "E"

###################################################

# below this line are functions for the brute force solution only
# added for comparision
#
# its using a global variable bboard and works destructively on it

def solve_brute():
    global bboard,board;
    bboard=list(board); # working copy
    move(1,0);move(2,1);
    move(3,14); # <== additional move, move 3 out of way
    move(4,2);move(3,6);
    gap_down();gap_down();gap_right();gap_right();gap_up();gap_up();gap_up();gap_left();gap_down();
    #first line solved
    print("first line");printbboard();
    move(5,4);move(6,5);move(7,14);move(8,6);move(7,10);
    gap_down();gap_down();gap_right();gap_right();gap_up();gap_up();gap_left();gap_down();
    #second line solved (upper half)
    print("2nd line");printbboard();
    move(9,15);move(13,8);move(9,9)
    gap_down();gap_left();gap_left();gap_up();gap_right();
    print("left border");printbboard();
    #left border solved
    move(10,15);move(14,9);move(10,10);
    gap_down();movegap(1+3*4);gap_up();gap_right();
    print("left half");printbboard();
    #left half solved

    #rotating last 4 tiles 5 times
    for x in ' '*5:
        gap_right();gap_down(); # gap is now on 15
        if (bboard==[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,0]):
            print("solution found");printbboard();          
            return;
        gap_left();gap_up();
    print("No solution found");
    printbboard();
    return

def printbboard():
    global bboard
    for i in(0,4,8,12): print('%2d %2d %2d %2d'%tuple(bboard[i:i+4]))

def gap_up():
    global bboard
    i=bboard.index(0);
    if (i<4):
        print("Err up()")
        return
    bboard[i],bboard[i-4] = bboard[i-4] , 0 ;

def gap_down():
    global bboard
    i=bboard.index(0);
    if (i>11):
        print("Err down()")
        return
    bboard[i],bboard[i+4] = bboard[i+4] , 0 ;

def gap_left():
    global bboard
    i=bboard.index(0);
    if (i%4<1):
        print("Err left()")
        return  
    bboard[i],bboard[i-1]= bboard[i-1] , 0 ;

def gap_right():
    global bboard
    i=bboard.index(0);
    if (i%4>2):
        print("Err right()")
        return
    bboard[i],bboard[i+1] = bboard[i+1] , 0 ;

def movegap(d): 
    global bboard;
    # d: destination location (0-15)
    k=bboard.index(0);
    ky,kx=divmod(k,4);
    dy,dx=divmod(d,4);
    # moving the gap
    while (ky>dy): 
        gap_up();ky-=1;
    while (kydx):
        gap_left();kx-=1;
    while (kxdx):
        move1left(s);
        ix-=1;
        print("1left ");
    while(iydy):
        move1up(s);
        print("1up");
        iy-=1;

def move1up(s):
    global bboard
    i=bboard.index(s);
    iy,ix=divmod(i,4);
    k=bboard.index(0);
    ky,kx=divmod(k,4);  
    if (kyix):
            movegap(ix+4*iy);
            return; #fin
        movegap(kx+4*(iy+1))
        movegap(ix+1+4*(iy+1))
        movegap(ix+1+4*iy);
        movegap(ix+4*iy);
        return; #fin
    if (ky==iy):
        if (kx2):
                # bottom row, left of s, have to move 1 up
                gap_up()
                # move 1 right 1 up of s
                movegap(ix+1+4*(ky-1));
                gap_down()
                gap_left()
                return; # fin
            # first 1 down
            movegap(kx+4*(ky+1))
            # to the right of s
            movegap(ix+1+4*(ky+1))
            gap_up()
            gap_left()
            return; # fin
        # already 1 right of s
        movegap(ix+4*iy);
        return; #fin
    # move gap 1 right and 1 down of s
    movegap(kx+4*(iy+1))
    movegap(ix+1+4*(iy+1))
    gap_up();
    gap_left();

def move1down(s):
    global bboard
    i=bboard.index(s);
    iy,ix=divmod(i,4);
    k=bboard.index(0);
    ky,kx=divmod(k,4);  
    if (ky2):
                # right border, have to move 1 to the left
                movegap(kx+4*(iy-1))
                movegap(kx-1+4*(iy-1))
                movegap(kx-1+4*(iy+1))
                gap_up();
                return; #fin
            # move right of s
            movegap(kx+4*(iy-1))
            movegap(kx+1+4*(iy-1))
            movegap(kx+1+4*(iy+1))
            movegap(kx+4*(iy+1))
            gap_up(); #fin
        movegap(kx+4*(iy+1))
        movegap(ix+4*(iy+1))
        gap_up(); #fin
    if (ky==iy):
        gap_down();
        ky+=1;
    # gap is below s, move 1 under s
    movegap(ix+4*(iy+1))
    gap_up();
    #fin

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